Mumbai is the capital city of Maharashtra State in India. It is the most heavily populated city in India, most densely inhabited urban area in India, and the fifth most densely inhabited city in the world, with an estimated population of 18.4 million as of 2011. In addition to the urban areas, the city includes other renowned neighborhoods, such as Navi Mumbai, Bhiwandi, Thane, and Kalyan. Mumbai lies on the western coastline of India and has a profound natural harbor. During 2009, the city was called as an alpha world city. It is as well, the wealthiest city in India, with the highest gross domestic product of any other cities in West, South, or Central Asia.
The history of the Mumbai City recounts the development of a group of seven islands on the western coastline of India, turning into the commercial capital of the country. Even though human occupation existed ever since the Stone Age, a Marathi fishing community and the Kolis, were the earliest recognized colonists of the islands. The Maurya kingdom gained the power of the islands during the third century BCE, and changed it into a Buddhist and Hindu cultural and religious centre. Afterward, between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands were brought under the control of succeeding native dynasties, such as the Satavahanas, Vakatakas, Abhiras, Konkan Mauryas, Kalachuris, the Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas, earlier than the rule of Silhara dynasties from 810 to 1260.
The Mumbai City has a tropical type of weather, particularly a tropical damp and arid climate under the Koppen type of weather categorization, with seven months of aridness and peak of rains during July. The cooler period continues from December to February, and is followed by the summer spell from March to June. The episode from June to the end of the September month comprises the south-west monsoon period, and the post-monsoon season continues from October to the end of November. Between the months of June and September, the city experiences south west monsoon rains that lash the city.
The average yearly temperature is 81 F (27.2 C), and the average yearly precipitation is 85 inches (2,167 mm). In the Island City, the average highest temperature is 88 F (31.2 C), whereas the average least temperature is 75 F (23.7 C). In the towns, the everyday mean highest temperature varies from 84 F to 92 F (29.1 C to 33.3 C), whereas the daily average minimum temperature varies from 61 F to 79 F (16.3 C to 26.2 C).
Mumbai is the biggest city of India by population and it is the commercial and financial capital of the country as it produces 6.16% of the total gross domestic product. The city serves as an economic center of India, accounting for 25% of industrial productivity, 10% of industrial unit employment, 33% of income tax collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 40% of foreign trade of India and Rs. 4000 crore in business taxes
Public transport in the Mumbai City involves the transfer of millions of its inhabitants through road, train and water. More than 88% of the travelers in Mumbai make use of public transport. The city has the biggest organized bus transport system between main Indian cities. Mumbai's The public transport of the city consists chiefly of fast transit on elite suburban railway lines increased by traveler rail on major lines, serving remote villages, the bus services of the three boroughs, structuring the city area, auto rickshaws and public taxis, including ferry services. A monorail and a metro system have freshly been inaugurated.
Schools in the Mumbai City are either private schools or municipal schools, which in a few cases get financial support from the government. The schools are affiliated, either with the All-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, the Maharashtra State Board, the Central Board of Secondary Education, or the National Institute of Open Schooling boards. English or Marathi is the usual medium of instruction in these schools.
The culture of the Mumbai City is a mix of traditional carnivals, music, food and theaters. Mumbai offers the international and varied lifestyle with different food, amusement and night life, accessible in a form and profusion analogous to that in other world cities. The history of Mumbai as a chief trading center has led to a varied range of religions, cultures and cuisines simultaneous in the city. This unique mix of cultures is because of the immigration of people from all parts of India since the British era.