Cairo, which is the major city in the Middle-East, is also the capital city of Egypt. It is the second-biggest city in Africa, and its metropolitan region is the 16th largest area in the world. The city, which is strategically situated close to the Nile Delta, was founded during the 10th century CE by the Fatimid dynasty. The nickname of the city is "the city of a thousand minarets", owing to its predominance of Islamic architecture. The Cairo city has long been a hub of the cultural and the political life of the region. The land composing the current-day city was the place of national capitals whose leftovers remain detectable in the areas of Old Cairo. The city is also linked with Ancient Egypt as it is nearer to the ancient cities of Giza, Memphis and Fustat that are close to the Giza pyramids and the Great Sphinx.
The region around current-day Cairo, particularly Memphis, had long been a center of Ancient Egypt, owing to its planned setting just upstream from the Nile River Delta. However, the sources of the current city are usually traced back to a sequence of colonies during the first millennium. During the early of the fourth century, when Memphis was continuing to decline in significance, the Romans set up a fort town down the east bank of the River Nile. This fort, celebrated as Babylon, continues the oldest construction in the city. It is also located at the center of the Coptic Orthodox area, which was alienated from the Byzantine and Roman church during the late 4th century. Several of the oldest Coptic churches of Cairo, as well as the Hanging Church, are situated along the fort walls in a segment of the city called Coptic Cairo.
In the Cairo City, and along the Nile River Basin, the type of weather is hot desert weather, consistent with the Koppen weather categorization system, but regularly with high dampness, owing to the effects of the river basin. Wind tempests can be common, carrying Saharan sand into the city of Cairo during March and April months. High temperatures during winter vary from 66 F to 84 F (19 C to 29 C), whereas nocturnal lows fall below 52 F (11 C), frequently to 41 F (5 C). During the summer season, the high temperatures rarely exceed 104 F (40 C), and low temperatures fall to 68 F (20 C). Rainfall is meager and only happens during the colder months, but abrupt showers will result in harsh flooding.
In every respect, Cairo City is the center of Egypt, ever since it has been established. Most parts of the trade of the country are generated in this city, or passes in the course of the city. The vast majority of media outlets and publishing houses and most movie studios are available in the city. The Cairo City also includes half of the universities and hospital beds of the country. This has fueled fast structure in the city, such that one construction in five is below 15 years old.
The Cairo City has a wide road system, subway system rail system, and marine services. Road transport is operated by taxi cabs, individual vehicles, privately possessed public buses and Cairo minibuses. Cairo, in particular Ramses Square in the city is the hub of approximately the entire transportation system of Egypt. Metro, the official subway system of Cairo is a swift and well-organized way of travelling around the city. Metro system of the city covers Helwan and other neighborhoods. It can get extremely busy during hurry hour.
Greater Cairo has been the center of education and enlightening services for Egypt and the area. Nowadays, it is the center for several government offices controlling the educational system of Egypt, has the huge number of edifying schools, and higher learning institutions among other cities and Egyptian governorates.
Egypt has set as the land over the ages, as far back as 4000 years, where several cultures have met. The Pharaohs, the emperors of very old Egyptian dynasties, along with the Babylonians, Greeks and the Romans have left their trace here. The Arabian Peninsula Muslims initiated Islam in Egypt. The cultural blend in this city is only usual, considering its inheritance. Egypt can be associated with an open museum with tombstones of the dissimilar historical periods on exhibit everywhere.