Biotechnology is the application of organisms and living systems to make or develop useful products, or any technical application that uses living organisms, biological systems, or derivatives from them, to make or transform products or processes for a particular use. According to the tools and uses, it habitually overlaps with the associated fields of Biomedical engineering and Bioengineering. The human race has employed biotechnology in food production, agriculture, and medicine for thousands of years. The word itself is largely supposed to have been coined during 1919 by Karoly Ereky, a Hungarian engineer. Biotechnology has developed during the last part of the 20th and the initial part of the 21st century to incorporate new and varied sciences such as recombinant gene technologies, genomics, applied immunology, and improvement of pharmaceutical treatments and diagnostic tests.
Concept of biotechnology
The broad concept of biotechnology or biotech includes an extensive range of processes for adapting living organisms in accordance with humanitarian principles, returning to animal domestication, farming of plants, and developments to these in the course of breeding programs that use non-natural selection and hybridization. Modern practice also comprises genetic engineering in addition to tissue and cell culture technologies. Biotechnology is defined as the application of organic systems, organisms, or processes by different industries to learning on the subject of the discipline of life and the development of the value of organisms and materials, like crops, pharmaceuticals, and livestock. It also writes on the clean biological sciences, such as animal cell culture, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, embryology, molecular biology and microbiology. In several instances, it is as well, a dependent on methods and knowledge from outside the biological sphere including:
· Bioprocess engineering.
· Bioinformatics, a novel product of computer science.
· Chemical engineering.
On the other hand, current biological sciences are closely entwined and heavily rely on the techniques, developed in the course of biotechnology and what is generally considered as the life sciences business.
Applications of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is being applied in four chief industrial areas, such as:
· Health care, such as medical.
· Crop manufacture and agriculture.
· Non-food crop applications and other products, such as vegetable oil, biodegradable plastics, bio-fuels, etc.
· Ecological uses.
One major application of biotechnology is the directed exercise of organisms for the production of organic products, such as milk products and beer. It is also used in bioleaching in the mining industry by using the naturally present microorganisms. Biotechnology is as well, used to treat waste, recycle, cleanup sites polluted by manufacturing activities, such as bioremediation, and to manufacture biological weapons, as well.
Biotechnology in medicine
Modern biotechnology finds its applications in medicine in areas, like pharmaceutical drug detection and manufacture, genetic screening or genetic testing and pharmacogenomics. Biotechnology plays a vital role in the detection and production of conventional tiny molecule pharmaceutical medicines in addition to medicines, which are the creation of biotechnology, such as biopharmaceutics. The modern biotechnology can be exploited to manufacture existing medicines relatively cheaply and easily.
Biotechnology has as well, allowed emerging therapeutics, such as the gene treatment. The use of biotechnology to essential science has dramatically enhanced the understanding of biology, as well.