Category: North American Mammals
Facts about American Bison, Scientific name for American Bison is Bison bison". The Bison is a big animal that comes from the Bovinae subfamily of the Bovidae family. The American Bison are also called Buffaloes, and they are largely found on private and secluded lands in regions of Canada and the western parts of the United States. There are two existing and four destroyed varieties of Bison. Out of the four destroyed varieties, three species, such as B. latifrons, Bison antiquus and B. occidentalis were native to North America and the fourth variety, the Bison priscus, varied across steppe settings from the Western parts of Europe, throughout Central parts of Asia, and onto North America. Though all bison varieties are usually grouped into their individual genus, they are occasionally incorporated in the closely associated genus Bos, in common with the gaur, cattle, yaks and kouprey, with which Bison have a limited skill to interbreed.
Features of Bison
The American Bison is a giant animal, and usually the male breeds are bigger and taller than the females. A mature male American Bison is capable of attaining a body length between 11 feet 8 inches to 12 feet 4 inches (3.6 meters and 3.8 meters), whereas the females have a body length, ranging from 7 feet to 10 feet 4 inches (2.13 meters to 3.18 meters). The height of the male American Bison at the shoulder ranges from 5 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 1 inch (1.67 meters to 1.86 meters), whereas the females have a body height between 5 feet to 5 feet 2 inches (1.52 meters to 1.57 meters). There is not much difference in the body mass of male and female breeds such that they have a body mass that ranges from 700.44 pounds to 1982.38 pounds (317.71 to 899.19 kg).
Two typical features of Bison are their huge head and the shoulder hump. They have a brown-colored fur, varying a little from the front and back part of the American Bison. Their front hair is longer than the back hair, and the difference between the lengths of the hair is most visible in male Bison breeds. They have black-colored horns, curving inward and upward and ending in a pointed tip. The hooves of the American Bison huge animals are circular in shape and black in color.
Historically, Bison occurred all through the open savannas and grasslands of North America. However, they can also be seen from boreal environments to semi-desert environments if grazing is suitable. Currently, Bison are more inadequate in distribution and, so, the environments they occupy. Currently, they are found in disjunctive populations in secluded areas all through the western parts of North America. The American Bison live in a big elevation range, being seen at all heights in the secluded regions they occupy.
Diet of Bison
Bison are herbivores, and they are the year round grazers. Mostly, they feed on grasses, but when food is inadequate, they will feed on vegetation, like sagebrush. The Bison plant food includes leaves, tubers and roots, tree bark, wood or stems. A Bison will consume an average of 1.6% of their body weight per day of arid vegetation and they also need water every day.
Reproduction of Bison
The male bison will attain the sexual maturity after three years of their birth, whereas the females will attain the sexual maturity after two to three years of their birth. However, they do not generally breed pending, six years of age, until they have attained a size that makes them capable of competing with other Bison for access to females. Bison used to breed once in a year, and their breeding season starts from late June to September. The female American Bison will give birth to only one calf during each breeding cycle. During the breeding time, the dominant male will try to limit access to a small cluster of female Bison for mating. Individual breeds tend female American Bison breeds pending allowed to mate, pursuing them around and chasing away the competing males. Usually, the gestation period is approximately 285 days, so the calving period is from the middle part of April to May.
The average lifespan of the American Bison ranges from 15 years to 20 years in the wild, whereas in captivity, they can live up to 40 years.