A Birmingham campaign of the civil rights movement was a campaign organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference during early 1963 to bring the awareness to the incorporation of the efforts taken by the African Americans in Birmingham in Alabama. The movement was led by James Bevel, the chief of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, Martin Luther King, Jr., an American activist, pastor, and a humanitarian, Fred Shuttlesworth, a United States civil rights activist and others. It is the movement of peaceful direct action culminated in extensively publicized disagreements between white civic authorities and young black students, and finally led the civic government to change the inequity laws of the city. The movement used various peaceful techniques of disagreement, as well as sit-ins at lunch counters and libraries, kneel-ins by black callers at white churches, and a rally to the county building to mark the commencement of a voter-listing drive.
Birmingham was one among the most ethnically divided cities in America during the early 1960, both as imposed by law and racial. Black civilians faced economic and legal disparities and aggressive retribution while they tried to draw attention to their difficulties. Disputes in Birmingham started through a boycott guided by Shuttlesworth intended to stress company leaders to open employment to citizens of all races, and to put an end to the segregation in public restaurants, facilities, stores and in schools. When local governmental and business leaders opposed the boycott, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference agreed to support. Wyatt Tee Walker, the organizer, joined Shuttlesworth, the Birmingham activist and started what they referred to as Project C, a sequence of sit-ins and rallies planned to provoke group arrests.
When the Birmingham campaign of the civil rights movement was short of adult volunteers, Bevel, the Director of Direct Action of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, educated and directed the students of the college, high school and elementary school partake in the demonstrations by taking a nonviolent walk of fifty students at a time, starting from the 16th Street Baptist Church in the City Hall to consult the mayor regarding segregation. This has caused more than a thousand student arrests, and as the detentions and holding spots crammed with the arrested students. The Birmingham law enforcement, Department, led by the Commissioner of Public Safety of Birmingham, Theophilus Eugene "Bull" Connor, employed high-pressure water hosepipes and the law enforcement attack dogs on the bystanders and the kids. Not every one of the bystanders was nonviolent, in spite of the affirmed intentions of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to hold a totally peaceful walk. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the King drew both praise and criticism for allowing kids to partake and be put them in a harmful way.
The Birmingham campaign of civil rights movement was a representation of a direct action objection and, in the course of the media, drew the attention of the world to the racial separation in the South. It burnished the status of the King, which made Theophilus Eugene "Bull" Connor ousted from his job, forced integration in Birmingham, and paved the way directly to the introduction of the 1964 Civil Rights Act that prohibited racial inequity in employing practices and public services in America.