Facts about Baboons. Baboon is a variety of Old World monkey that belongs to the genus Papio of the Cercopithecidae family. "Scientific name for Baboon is Papio". The Baboon varieties are native to Arabia and Africa, and the Guinea Baboon and the Chacma Baboon are the smallest and the biggest baboons respectively in the Cercopithecidae family. The body length of the Guinea Baboon is 20 inches (50 cm), whereas the body length of the Chacma Baboon is 47 inches (120 cm). The smallest Guinea Baboon has a body mass of 30 pounds (14 kg), whereas the biggest Chacma Baboon has a body weight of 90 pounds (40 kg).
Features of Baboon
Usually, a baboon has elongated muzzles that are similar to that of a dog. The Baboon have heavy, influential jaws with pointed canine teeth, close-deposited eyes, and thick body coat, except on the muzzles. They appear with small tails, and uneven spots on their projecting buttocks, which are called as schial callosities. These calluses have no nerves, and the hairless pads of skin enable the baboon to sit comfortably. All baboon varieties display marked sexual dimorphism, typically in size, but they also appear in different colors or with different canine growth. Some varieties of baboons have big white color manes, as well. Baboons are capable of acquiring orthographic processing abilities, which form part of the skill to read.
The Baboon is an omnivorous animal, but they generally feed on herbivorous diet, yet they feed on insects and rarely prey on shellfish, fish, hares, vervet monkeys, birds and tiny antelopes.
Behavior of Baboon
The Baboon is a ground dwelling animal, and they can be seen largely in open woodland, open Savannah and in the hills across Africa. These Baboons are foragers and are energetic at uneven times all through the day and night. The Baboon can break-in human homes, and they have been recognized to prey on goats and sheep.
Nearly all baboons live in hierarchical groups, with the size ranges from 5 to 250 Baboons. The size of the group varies greatly according to the baboon varieties and the time of the year. The organization within the troop differs considerably between baboon varieties. Some baboon varieties habitually appear in extremely huge groups, made up of several smaller harems. These smaller harems may include one male baboon with four female baboons, to which female baboon from elsewhere in the group are adopted when they are still too immature to breed.
Some baboon varieties have a more immoral organization with a strict supremacy hierarchy derived from the matriline. Some other groups will normally embrace a younger male baboon, but he will not try to mate with the female baboons, except the elder male is eliminated from the group.
Reproduction of Baboon
The mating behavior of a baboon differs greatly, according to the social organization of the group. In the varied groups of savanna baboons, every male baboon can mate with any female baboon. The mating array among the male baboons depends partly on their social status, and battles between males are common. However, there are more delicate possibilities such that in mixed troops, sometimes, males try to succeed the companionship of females. To acquire this companionship, they may assist groom the female baboon, help by looking after her juvenile, or provide her with food. However, male baboons will also take babies during brawls to defend themselves from damage.
A female baboon will initiate mating by presenting her inflamed rump to the face of the female baboon. Usually, she offers birth to a single infant after the gestation period of six months. The juvenile baboon weighs about 0.9 pounds (400 grams) and boasts a black color epidermis when born. The female baboons are inclined to be the chief caretaker of the infant, even though several female baboons will share the tasks for all of their children.
The average lifespan of the baboon is 30 years in the wild, whereas in the captive, they can live up to 45 years.